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Code of Ethics

Our Vision

To have an Aotearoa-New Zealand that values difference and realises human potential.

Our Mission

To promote the ethical use of Psychological Type in Aotearoa-New Zealand.

Our Purpose

  1. To promote the constructive use of individual differences based on C.G. Jung's theories of Psychological Type.
  2. To provide access and information regarding the use of Psychological Type discovery processes.
  3. To promote the ethical principles and standards integral to the professional use of Psychological Type.

Ethical Principles

Members of the New Zealand Association for Psychological Type (NZAPT) subscribe to the following ethical principles:

  1. Information about a person's Type is used for the maximum benefit of the individual.
  2. Practitioners maintain all ethical standards as set out herein when giving feedback or information about Psychological Type.
  3. Practitioners work safely within the limits of their own Type knowledge and professional competence, with a commitment to continue their own Type related professional development.
  4. Self discovery processes and interpretation of psychometric test results emphasise the appreciation and constructive use of individual differences.
  5. Practitioners accept the professional and legal responsibilities associated with the use of Psychological Type Instruments.

Standards of Practice

Psychological Type practitioners are bound by professional standards for the effective and ethical delivery of Psychological Type information, including; feedback from administered psychological instruments and facilitation of self discovery processes. Standards relate to:

1.     Interpretation of results

2.     Confidentiality of results

3.     Professional competence

4.     Moral and legal standards

5.     Research

1.     Interpretation of Results

Psychological Type practitioners interpret results respectfully, carefully and accurately.

Professional Practitioners:

  1. Ensure that people's use of a Psychological Type instrument is voluntary and informed.
  2. Provide person-to-person interactive interpretations (preferably face-to-face) and in workshops provide time to answer individual’s questions.
  3. Empower the individual receiving feedback to be the best judge of his or her best-fit Type.
  4. Explain that Type scales indicate consistency in voting for the preferences, rather than skills, maturity or likelihood of success.
  5. Ensure that Type preferences are not used for the purposes of discrimination or selection in employment.
  6. Present Psychological Type results as working hypotheses, allowing for deeper and richer exploration of self and others.
  7. Provide:
    1. A history of and credit for the Type theory.
    2. An opportunity for clients to self-assess their Type and verify reported Type results
    3. A process for validation of "best-fit" or "true" Type.
    4. Materials that include descriptions of all 16 Types.
    5. Acknowledge that no psychological instrument or theory can give a full explanation of all human complexity.
    6. Distinguish between stereotyping and Type, affirming that people are complex, dynamic and capable of unique patterns of behaviour and development.
    7. Avoid oversimplifying or misusing Type theory.
    8. Emphasise that all Types are valuable, that there are no 'bad' Types.
    9. Present Types and Type preferences as describing probable patterns of behaviour and tendencies rather than fixed traits.
    10. Use language that distinguishes preference from compulsion, such as "tend to ...." "may prefer ....” rather than "you are...." or “thinkers do....”
    11. Distinguish between research outcomes and anecdotal evidence when discussing Type data.
    12. Guard against their own Type biases in communications about Type.

2.     Confidentiality of results

Psychological Type practitioners respect the confidentiality of the Psychological Type information they obtain in the course of their work.

Professional Practitioners:

  1. Preserve the confidentiality of the individuals' Psychological Type results.
  2. Ensure Psychological Type records are treated as the property of their subject.
  3. Make provisions for maintaining confidentiality in the storage and disposal of Psychological Type records.

3.     Professional Competence

Psychological Type practitioners demonstrate competence in their use of Type.

Professional Practitioners:

  1. Represent their competence, education, training and experience accurately.
  2. Advertise their services accurately.
  3. Continue to develop their knowledge of Psychological Type theory and practice.
  4. Ensure their instruction is accurate and current.
  5. Limit their Psychological Type services to those for which they are qualified through training and experience.
  6. Facilitate the professional development of other Psychological Type professionals they employ or supervise.
  7. Monitor people they supervise to ensure that their use of Psychological Type does not go beyond their level of knowledge and competence.

4.     Moral and Legal Standards

Psychological Type practitioners abide by laws and legal guidelines.

Professional Practitioners:

  1. Adhere to New Zealand’s laws and legal guidelines governing the conduct of professionals who use psychological instruments.
  2. Do not appropriate, reproduce, or modify Psychological Type instruments or materials without permission from their publisher.
  3. Observe copyright laws.
  4. Maintain professional control of materials.
  5. Make every endeavour to prevent misuse of Type by institutions or agencies with which they are working.
  6. Educate and correct others who misuse Type material.

5.     Research

Psychological Type practitioners who conduct research adhere to ethical, legal, and professional guidelines on research with human subjects.

Professional Practitioners:

  1. Ensure that research is undertaken with the informed consent of its subjects.
  2. Establish clear and fair agreements that articulate the obligations and responsibilities of the researchers and participants.
  3. State known variables and conditions that may affect the outcome of studies or the interpretation of data when reporting results.
  4. Make sufficient data available for qualified professionals to replicate studies.
  5. Give appropriate literary citations and references.

Complaints Procedure

Step 1

Clearly identify practices you consider or that have been referred to you as unethical.

Step 2

If possible, approach the person responsible and discuss the issue(s) directly with them.

If you are satisfied that the issues are resolved, the process stops here.

 Step 3

If it is not possible to approach the person directly, or the issues remain unresolved, refer to the NZAPT Ethics committee. Below is a format to assist you with putting a concern in writing.

The Ethics committee can only act if it has detailed reports, hard copy, and facts regarding a complaint.

Step 4

The Ethics committee will examine the matter in relation to the NZAPT ethical standards, and reach a decision about how to address the situation. Sometimes further information about the situation and the practitioner will be sought.

Step 5

A letter, setting out the decision and recommendations of the Ethics committee, will be to the person or company involved. The committee will minute this decision with the NZAPT Board.

Some typical  responses to ethical issues:

  • Advice about the required levels of training and qualification for users of Psychological Type instruments.
  • Reminders about copyright of materials and acknowledging Psychological Type Registered Trademarks.
  • Reminders about possible damage when psychometric material is used inappropriately.
  • Correcting faulty interpretations.
  • Identifying invalid uses of the Indicator.
  • Referral of copyright abuse to the publisher.
  • Referral of Psychological Type instrument misuse to the publisher.

For further information or to report ethical concerns, contact:

Ethics Convener: or NZAPT, PO Box 4146, Marewa, Napier 4143, New Zealand

Ethical concerns or complaints should be written and include:

  • Date
  • Names
  • Contact Phone, Fax, Email
  • Description of concerns (who, where, when, what, how)
  • Actions already taken
  • Recommendations for follow-up action